RECovery of Logbooks And International Marine data (RECLAIM) Project

Background and Scope
National Results
Marine Areas
Southern Ocean
Selected Bibliographies
Additional Links

Selected Bibliographies:

Agnew, D.C., 2004: Robert Fitzroy and the myth of the 'Marsden Square': Transatlantic rivalries in early marine meteorology. Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond., 58(1), 21-46.

Allan, R., P. Brohan, G.P. Compo, R. Stone, J. Luterbacher, and S. Brönnimann, 2011: The International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) Initiative. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 1421-1425 (doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3218.1).

AWS (Air Weather Service), 1960: History of the International Code. Reference Manual TDF 13. HQ, Air Weather Service (1 September 1960), pp. 0.6-0.10. (pdf; 2.7MB)

Braun, D.S., 2000: Scientific vision, a passion for observation, and the impetus for change: Germany loans Maury logs to the National Climatic Data Center. Earth System Monitor, 11(1), 4-7. (pdf; 14.3MB)

Brázdil, R., P. Dobrovolný, J. Luterbacher, A. Moberg, C. Pfister, D. Wheeler, and E. Zorita, 2010: European climate of the past 500 years: new challenges for historical climatology. Climatic Change, 101, 7-40 (doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9783-z).

Brohan, P., R. Allan, J.E. Freeman, A.M. Waple, D. Wheeler, C. Wilkinson, and S. Woodruff, 2009: Marine observations of old weather. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 219-230

Brohan, P., C. Ward, G. Willetts, C. Wilkinson, R. Allan, and D. Wheeler, 2010: Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century. Clim. Past, 6, 315-324 (doi:10.5194/cp-6-315-2010).

Brohan, P., R. Allan, E. Freeman, D. Wheeler, C. Wilkinson, and F. Williamson, 2012: Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations, Clim. Past Discuss., 8, 1653-1685 (doi:10.5194/cpd-8-1653-2012).

Cerveny, R.S., 2005: Charles Darwin's meterological observations above the HMS Beagle. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1295-1301.

Chenoweth, M., 1996: Ships' logbooks and "The Year Without a Summer". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 2077-2094.

CLIWOC-team, 2003: Multilingual Meteorological Dictionary an English-Spanish-Dutch-French dictionary of wind force terms used by mariners from 1750 to 1850. HISKLIM 5 (KNMI publ. 205) KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 49 pp.

Elms, J.D., R.G. Quayle, and S.D. Woodruff, 1992: Where have all the data gone? Mar. Wea. Log, 36, No. 2, 9-13.

García-Herrera, R., F.R. Durán, D. Wheeler, E.H. Martín, M.R. Prieto, and L. Gimeno, 2005: The use of Spanish and British documentary sources in the investigation of Atlantic hurricane incidence, in R.J. Murnane and K.-B. Liu (Eds.) Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present and Future. Columbia University Press, New York, 149-176.

García-Herrera, R., P. Jones, D. Wheeler, G. Können, and M.R. Prieto (Guest Eds.), 2005: CLIWOC: Climatology of the World's Oceans, 1750-1850 (Special Issue). Clim. Change, 73, 1-194. [Individual papers are listed in the following separate section.]

Gergis, J., P. Brohan, and R. Allan, 2010: The weather of the First Fleet voyage to Botany Bay, 1787-1788. Weather, 65, 315-319.

Greenough, M.L.,1998: Report on Conversion of NCDC Microfilms to Electronic Files with FOSDIC. Greenough Data Associates, Rockville, MD. (pdf; 8MB)

Levitus S., 2012: The UNESCO-IOC-IODE "Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue" (GODAR) Project and "World Ocean Database" Project. Data Science Journal, 11, 46-71 (doi:10.2481/dsj.012-014).

Lewis, J.M., 1996: Winds over the World Sea: Maury and Köppen. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 935-952.

Manabe, T., 1999: The digitized Kobe Collection, phase I: historical surface marine meteorological observations in the archive of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 2703-2715.

Maritime Conference, 1875: Report of the Proceedings of the Conference on Maritime Meteorology held in London, 1874, Protocols and Appendices. Published by Authority of the Meteorological Committee, Official No. 23, HM Stationery Office, London, 61 pp. (pdf; 9.3MB)

Maury, M.F., 1851: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 3rd Ed., C. Alexander, Printer, Washington, 315 pp. + plates. [Note: Abstract log form on pp. 314-315.] (pdf; 25MB)

Maury, M.F., 1854: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 6th Ed., E.C. and J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 772 pp. + plates. [Note: A report from the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 54-60; "Minutes of the Sittings" on pp. 60-88; and "Explanatory notes for keeping the abstract log," and example log forms for men-of-war and merchantmen, on pp. 88-96.] (pdf; 101MB)

Maury, M.F., 1855: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 7th Ed., E.C. and J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 869 pp. + plates. [Note: Material related to the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 181-212.] (pdf; 99MB)

Maury, M.F., 1858: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 8th Ed., Vol. 1, W.A. Harris, printer, Washington, 383 pp. + plates. [Note: Material related to the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 330-383.] (pdf; 60MB)

Maury, M.F., 1859: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 8th Ed., Vol. 2, W.A. Harris, printer, Washington, 874 pp. + plates. [Note: Conditions upon which the Wind and Current Charts are furnished to navigators on pp. 870-874.] (pdf; 67MB)

Mierzejewska, A.W., Z. Wu, R.E. Newell, and T. Miyashita, 1997: Japanese whaling ships' sea surface temperature 1946-84. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 443-447.

NARA (National Archives and Records Administration), 1986: The Maury Abstract Logs, 1796-1861. Pamphlet describing microfilm publication M1160, NARA, Washington, 8 pp. (pdf; 1MB)

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), 1968: TDF-11 Reference Manual. NCDC, Asheville, NC, 138 pp. (pdf; 2.5MB)

Neumayer, G., 1879: Conduct of marine meteorology in Germany (and the agreements reached between the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in Utrecht and the German Marine Observatory regarding the publication of the results of maritime meteorology). Delivered to the Second International Meteorological Congress in Rome. Hamburg, 26 pp + images [UK Met Office Translation No.1631]. (pdf; 2MB)

Prieto, M.R., R. García-Herrera, E. Hernández Martin, 2004: Early records of icebergs in the South Atlantic Ocean from Spanish documentary sources. Climatic Change, 66, 29-48 (doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000043142.94461.d1).

Sherman, S.C., J.M. Downey, V.M. Adams, and H. Pasternack, 1986: Whaling Logbooks and Journals, 1613-1927: An Inventory of Manuscript Records in Public Collections. Garland Publishing, New York, 469 pp.

UK Meteorological Office, 1948: International Meteorological Code Adopted by the International Meteorological Organization, Washington, 1947. M.O. 509, H.M. Stationary Office, London, 39 pp, (pdf; 6.1MB)

US Air Weather Service, 1948: Machine Methods of Weather Statistics (June 1948). Prepared by the US Air Force Data Control Unit, an Activity of the Air Weather Service, New Orleans, LA, 59 pp. + illustrations. [Note: Limited information about marine data.] (pdf; 5MB)

US Air Weather Service et al., 1949: Machine Methods of Weather Statistics, 4th Ed. (December 1949). Prepared cooperatively by the Machine Tabulating Units of the US Air Force/Air Weather Service, US Dept. of Commerce/Weather Bureau, and US Navy/Aerology Section, New Orleans, LA, 28 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data, e.g., early card decks.] (pdf; 3MB)

US Office of Naval Operations, 1953: Climatology by Machine Methods for Naval Operations, Plans, and Research (March 1953). Prepared for the Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Aerology Branch, Washington, DC, 37 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data.] (pdf; 5MB)

US Weather Bureau, 1960: Climatology at Work: Measurements, Methods and Machines (October 1960). G.L. Barger, Ed.; inside cover note dated 31 January 1974 by H.L. Crutcher. Produced at National Weather Records Center, US Weather Bureau, Asheville, NC (with support of US Navy and US Air Force/Air Weather Service), 109 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data; photographs of FOSDIC machines on p. 74.] (pdf; 47MB)

US Weather Bureau-Japan Meteorological Agency, 1960: Guide Book of the Japanese Marine Surface Data, US Weather Bureau and Japan Meteorological Agency, 527 pp. (pdf; 15MB)

US Weather Bureau-Japan Meteorological Agency, 1961: Guide Book of the Japanese Marine Surface Data, US Weather Bureau and Japan Meteorological Agency, 81 pp. (pdf; 2MB)

Verploegh, G., 1966: Report of the Consultant on the Historical Sea-Surface Temperature Data Project, 49 pp. plus Annexes. [Note: The Consultant was to, but the report appears not to have been archived by, WMO. Copies were obtained courtesy of the UK Met Office and KNMI.] (pdf; 5MB)

Wheeler, D.A., 1988: Sailing ships logs' weather records: a test case. J. Meteorology (UK), 13,122-125.

Wheeler, D., 1995: The weather vocabulary of an eighteenth century mariner: the log books of Nicholas Pocock. Weather, 50, 298-304 [reprinted in 1997 in The Marine Observer, 67, 22-28].

Wheeler, D., 2001: The weather of the European Atlantic Seaboard during October 1805: an exercise in historical climatology: Climatic Change, 48, 361-385.

Wheeler, D., 2004: Understanding seventeenth century ships' logbooks: an exercise in historical climatology. Journal for Maritime Research, March 2004 (doi:10.1080/21533369.2004.9668335).

Wheeler, D., and C. Wilkinson, 2004: From calm to storm: the origins of the Beaufort wind scale. Mariner's Mirror, 90, 187-201.

Wheeler, D., and J. Suarez-Dominguez, 2006: Climatic reconstructions for the northeast Atlantic region AD 1685-1700: a new source of evidence from naval logbooks. The Holocene, 16, 39-49.

Wheeler, D., and R. García-Herrera, 2008: Ships' Logbooks in Climatological Research: Reflections and Prospects. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1146, 1-15 (2008) (doi:10.1196/annals.1446.006).

Wheeler, D., R. García-Herrera, C. W. Wilkinson, and C. Ward, 2010: Atmospheric circulation and storminess derived from Royal Navy logbooks: 1685 to 1750. Climatic Change, 101, 257-280 (doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9732-x).

Wilkinson C., C. Ward, and F. Williamson, 2008: Report on the Royal Navy Remark Books Held at the Hydrographic Office: Taunton UK. (Unpublished report) (pdf; 337KB)

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 2004: An International Seminar to Celebrate the Brussels Maritime Conference of 1853--An Historical Perspective of Operational Marine Meteorology and Oceanography. WMO/TD-No. 1226 (JCOMM Technical Report No. 27)--on CD-ROM.

WMO, 1985: User's Guide to the Data and Summaries of the Historical Sea Surface Temperature Data Project. Marine Meteorology and Related Oceanographic Activities Report No. 13, WMO/TD-No. 36, Geneva. (pdf; 1.7MB)

Woodruff, S., J. Elms, R. Reynolds, R. Garcia, F. Guo, S. Worley, and T. Yoshida, 2004: Rescuing marine data. World Climate News, No. 25 (June 2004), WMO, Geneva, 10.

CLIWOC Climatic Change Special Issue

García-Herrera, R., G.P. Können, D.A. Wheeler, M.R. Prieto, P.D. Jones, and F.B. Koek, 2005: CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750-1854. Climatic Change, 73, 1-12 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6952-6).

García-Herrera, R., C. Wilkinson, F.B. Koek, M.R. Prieto, N. Calvo, and E. Hernández, 2005: Description and general background to ships' logbooks as a source of climatic data. Climatic Change, 73, 13-36 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6954-4).

Jones, P.D., and M. Salmon, 2005: Preliminary reconstructions of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation Index from measures of wind strength and direction taken during the CLIWOC period. Climatic Change, 73, 131-154 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6948-2).

Koek, F.B., and G.P. Können, 2005: Determination of wind force and present weather terms: The Dutch case. Climatic Change, 73, 79-95 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6945-5).

Können, G.P., and F.B. Koek, 2005: Description of the CLIWOC database. Climatic Change, 73, 117-130 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6946-4).

Prieto, M. R., D. Gallego, R. García-Herrera, N. Calvo, 2005: Deriving wind force terms from nautical reports through content analysis. The Spanish and French cases. Climatic Change, 73, 37-55 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6956-2).

Wheeler, D., 2005: An examination of the accuracy and consistency of ships' logbook weather observations and records. Climatic Change, 73, 97-116 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6950-8).

Wheeler, D., and C. Wilkinson, 2005: The determination of logbook wind force and weather terms: The English case. Climatic Change, 73, 57-77 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6949-1).

Wilkinson, C., 2005: The non-climatic research potential of ships' logbooks and journals. Climatic Change, 73, 155-167 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6947-3).

Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, S.J. Worley, R.W. Reynolds, and S.J. Lubker, 2005: Early ship observational data and ICOADS. Climatic Change, 73, 169-194 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-3456-3).

HISKLIM (HIStorical CLIMate) Marine Publications

García-Herrera, R., D. Wheeler, G.P. Können, F.B. Koek and M.R. Prieto, 2003: CLIWOC multilingual meteorological dictionary, An English-Spanish-Dutch-French dictionary of wind force terms used by mariners from 1750-1850. HISKLIM 5 (KNMI-publication 205) 49pp., ISBN 90-369-2243-7, KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.7MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2005: HISKLIM-COADS, final report. HISKLIM 8 (KNMI-publication 210), ISBN 90-369-2269-0. KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.5MB)

Wallbrink H., F.B. Koek and T. Brandsma, 2009: The US Maury Collection Metadata 1796-1861. HISKLIM 11 (KNMI-publication 225), KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 1.12 MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2009: Historical Maritime Wind Scales until 1947. HISKLIM 12, 20pp., KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.6MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2009: Historical Wind Speed Equivalents Of The Beaufort Scale, 1850-1950. HISKLIM 13, 29pp., KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.5MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2010: Data Acquisition And Keypunching Codes For Marine Meteorological Observations At The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 1854-1968. HISKLIM 14, KNMI Publication No. 226, 59pp, KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 2.9MB)

Historical Literature Survey

  • Historical Literature Survey from Clive Wilkinson (xls, csv)
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