International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS)

Selected Research Bibliography


Examples are presented under the following headings of research publications relevant to the use of ICOADS (in some cases pre-dating ICOADS). Several of the headings focus on individual marine variables. We welcome comments and suggestions for additions to this page.


Atlases
Bottomley, M. C.K. Folland, J. Hsiung, R.E. Newell, and D.E. Parker, 1990: Global Ocean Surface Temperature Atlas 'GOSTA.' Met Office/MIT (Boston), 20+iv pp., 313 plates.

Environmental Working Group, 1997: Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean. National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO--on CD-ROM.

Hahn, C.J., S.G. Warren, J. London, R.M. Chervin, and R. Jenne, 1982: Atlas of Simultaneous Occurrence of Different Cloud Types over the Ocean. NCAR Technical Note TN-201+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 212 pp.

Isemer, H.-J., and L. Hasse, 1985: Bunker Climate Atlas of the North Atlantic Ocean, Vol. 1: Observations. Springer-Verlag, New York, 218 pp.

Isemer, H.-J., and L. Hasse, 1987: Bunker Climate Atlas of the North Atlantic Ocean, Vol. 2: Air-sea Interactions. Springer-Verlag, New York, 252 pp.

Josey, S.A., E.C. Kent, D. Oakley, and P.K. Taylor, 1996: A new global air-sea heat and momentum flux climatology. International WOCE Newsletter, 24, 3-5.

Josey, S.A., E.C. Kent, and P.K. Taylor, 1998: The Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) Ocean-Atmosphere Heat, Momentum and Freshwater Flux Atlas. SOC Report No. 6, University of Southampton, UK, 30 pp. + figures.

McDonald, W.F., 1938: Atlas of Climatic Charts of the Oceans. US Department of Agriculture, Weather Bureau, W.B. No. 1247, Washington, DC.

Oberhuber, J. M., 1988: An Atlas Based on the 'COADS' Data Set: The Budgets of Heat, Buoyancy and Turbulent Kinetic Energy at the Surface of the Global Ocean. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie (MPI), Report No. 15, MPI, Hamburg, Germany.

da Silva, A. M., C.C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data, Vol. 1: Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA/NESDIS, 83 pp.

da Silva, A. M., C.C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data, Vol. 2: Anomalies of Directly Observed Quantities. NOAA/NESDIS, 416 pp.

da Silva, A. M., C.C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data, Vol. 3: Anomalies of Heat and Momentum Fluxes. NOAA/NESDIS, 413 pp.

da Silva, A. M., C.C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data, Vol. 4: Anomalies of Fresh Water Fluxes. NOAA/NESDIS, 308 pp.

US Navy, 1981: Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Vol. IX: World-wide Means and Standard Deviations. NAVAIR 50-1C-65, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 169 pp.

Wright, P.B., 1988: An Atlas Based on the 'COADS' Data Set: Fields of Mean Wind, Cloudiness and Humidity at the Surface of the Global Ocean. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie (MPI), Report No. 14, MPI, Hamburg, Germany.


Cloudiness
Hahn, C. J., and S. G. Warren, 1999: Extended edited synoptic cloud reports from ships and land stations over the globe, 1952-1996. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Rep. NDP026C, 81 pp.

Hahn, C.J., S.G. Warren, and J. London, 1995: The effect of moonlight on observation of cloud cover at night, and application to cloud climatology. J. Climate, 8, 1429-1445.

Norris, J.R., 1998: Low cloud type over the ocean from surface observations. Part II: geographical and seasonal variations. J. Climate, 11, 383-403.

Norris, J.R., 1999: On trends and possible artifacts in global ocean cloud cover between 1952 and 1995. J. Climate, 12, 1864-1870.


Fluxes
Berry, D.I., and E.C. Kent, 2009: A new air-sea interaction gridded dataset from ICOADS with uncertainty estimates. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 645-656 (doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2639.1).

Berry, D.I. and E.C. Kent, 2011, Air-sea fluxes from ICOADS: the construction of a new gridded dataset with uncertainty estimates. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 987-1001 (doi:10.1002/joc.2059).

Gleckler, P. J., and B. C. Weare, 1997: Uncertainties in global ocean surface heat flux climatologies derived from ship observations. J. Climate, 10, 2764-2781.

Grist, J.P., and S.A. Josey, 2003: Inverse analysis adjustment of the SOC air-sea flux climatology using ocean heat transport constraints. J. Climate, 20, 3274-3295.

Gulev S., T. Jung, and E. Ruprecht, 2007: Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air–sea fluxes. Part I: Uncertainties in climate means. J. Climate, 20, 279–301 (doi:10.1175/JCLI4010.1).

Gulev S., T. Jung, and E. Ruprecht, 2007: Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air–sea fluxes. Part II: Impact on trends and interannual variability. J. Climate, 20, 302–315 (doi:10.1175/JCLI4008.1).

Isemer, H.-J., and A. Rozwadowska, 1998: Solar radiation fluxes at the surface of the Baltic Proper, part 2: Uncertainties and comparison with simple bulk parametrisations. Oceanologia, 41, 147-185.

Josey, S.A., E.C. Kent and P.K. Taylor, 1999: New insights into the ocean heat budget closure problem from analysis of the SOC air-sea flux climatology. J. Climate, 12, 2856-2880.

Josey, S.A., E.C. Kent and P.K. Taylor, 2002: Wind stress forcing of the ocean in the SOC Climatology: Comparisons with the NCEP/NCAR, ECMWF, UWM/COADS and Hellerman and Rosenstein datasets. J. Phys. Oceanog., 32, 1993-2019.

Kent, E.C., and P.K. Taylor, 1995: A comparison of sensible and latent heat flux estimates in the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1530-1549.

Kubota, M., A. Kano, H. Muramatsu, and H. Tomita, 2003: Intercomparison of various surface latent heat flux fields. J. Climate, 16, 670- 678.

Küttel, M., E. Xoplaki, D. Gallego, J. Luterbacher, R. Garcia-Herrera, R. Allan, M. Barriendos, P.D. Jones, D. Wheeler, and H. Wanner, 2009: The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750. Climate Dynamics (doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0577-9).

Lindau, R., 2003: Errors of Atlantic air-sea fluxes derived from ship observations. J. Climate, 16, 783-788.

Ramage, C.S., 1984: Can shipboard measurements reveal secular changes in air-sea heat flux? J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 23, 187-193.

Rozwadowska, A., and H.-J. Isemer, 1998: Solar radiation fluxes at the surface of the Baltic Proper, part 1: mean annual cycle and influencing factors. Oceanologia, 40, 307-330.

Smith, S.R., P.J. Hughes, and M.A. Bourassa, 2011: A comparison of nine monthly air-sea flux products. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1002-1027 (doi:10.1002/joc.2225).

Woodruff, S. and S. Worley, 2006: Ocean fluxes and ICOADS: A status report. FLUX News, No. 1 (January 2006), 10-11.

Yu, L., and R.A. Weller, 2007: Objectively analyzed air-sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981-2005). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 527-539 (doi:10.1175/BAMS-88-4-527).


Marine Temperatures
Barnett, T.P., 1984: Long-term trends in surface temperature over the oceans. Mon. Wea. Rev., 112, 303-312.

Berry, D.I, and E.C. Kent, 2005: The effect of instrument exposure on marine air temperatures: an assessment using VOSClim data. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 1007-1022 (doi:10.1002/joc.1178).

Berry, D.I, E.C. Kent, and P.K. Taylor, 2004: An analytical model of heating errors in marine air temperatures from ships. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 1198-1215.

Casey, K.S., and P. Cornillon, 1999: A comparison of satellite and in situ-based sea surface temperature climatologies. J. Climate, 12, 1848-1863.

Folland, C., 2005: Assessing bias corrections in historical sea surface temperature using a climate model. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 895-911 (doi:10.1002/joc.1171).

Folland, C.K., and D.E. Parker, 1995: Correction of instrumental biases in historical sea surface temperature data. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 121, 319-367.

Folland, C.K., R.W. Reynolds, M. Gordon, and D.E. Parker, 1993: A study of six operational sea surface temperature analyses. J. Climate, 6, 96-113.

Forest C.E., and R.W. Reynolds, 2008: Climate change: Hot questions of temperature bias. Nature, 453, 601-602 (29 May 2008) (doi:10.1038/453601a).

Hurrell, J.W., and K.E. Trenberth, 1999: Global sea surface temperature analyses: multiple problems and their implications for climate analysis, modeling, and reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 2661-2678.

Ishii, M., A. Shouji, S. Sugimoto, and T. Matsumoto, 2005: Objective analyses of sea-surface temperature and marine meteorological variables for the 20th century using ICOADS and the Kobe Collection. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 865-879 (doi:10.1002/joc.1169).

Kaplan, A., Y. Kushnir, M.A. Cane, and M.B. Blumenthal, 1997: Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C13), 27835-27860.

Kaplan, A., M.A. Cane, Y. Kushnir, A.C. Clement, M.B. Blumenthal, and B. Rajagopalan, 1998: Analysis of global sea surface temperature 1856-1991. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C9), 18567-18589.

Kennedy, J.J., N.A. Rayner, R.O. Smith, D.E. Parker, and M. Saunby (2011), Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 1. Measurement and sampling uncertainties, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14103 (doi:10.1029/2010JD015218).

Kennedy, J.J., N.A. Rayner, R.O. Smith, D.E. Parker, and M. Saunby (2011), Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14104 (doi:10.1029/2010JD015220).

Kent, E. C., and P. G. Challenor, 2006: Toward estimating climatic trends in SST. Part II: Random errors. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23, 476-486 (doi:10.1175/JTECH1843.1).

Kent, E. C., and A. Kaplan, 2006: Toward estimating climatic trends in SST. Part III: Systematic biases. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23, 487-500 (doi:10.1175/JTECH1844.1).

Kent, E. C., and P. K. Taylor, 2006: Toward estimating climatic trends in SST. Part I: Methods of measurement. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 23, 464-475 (doi:10.1175/JTECH1845.1).

Kent, E.C., J.J. Kennedy, D.I. Berry, and R.O. Smith, 2010: Effects of instrumentation changes on sea surface temperature measured in situ. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1, 718-728 (doi:10.1002/wcc.55).

Kent, E.C., R.J. Tiddy, and P.K. Taylor, 1993: Correction of marine air temperature observations for solar radiation effects. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 900-906.

Minobe, S., and A. Maeda, 2005: A 1° monthly gridded sea-surface temperature dataset compiled from ICOADS from 1850 to 2002 and Northern Hemisphere frontal variability. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 881-894 (doi:10.1002/joc.1170).

Parker, D.E., C.K. Folland, and M. Jackson, 1995: Marine surface temperature: observed variations and data requirements. Climatic Change, 31, 559-600.

Rayner, N.A., P. Brohan, D.E. Parker, C.K. Folland, J.J. Kennedy, M. Vanicek, T.J. Ansell, and S.F.B. Tett, 2006: Improved analyses of changes and uncertainties in sea surface temperature measured in situ since the mid-nineteenth century: The HadSST2 dataset. J. Climate, 19, 446-469 (doi:10.1175/JCLI3637.1).

Rayner, N.A., D.E. Parker, E.B. Horton, C.K. Folland, L.V. Alexander, D.P. Rowell, E.C. Kent, and A. Kaplan, 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D14), 4407 (doi:10.1029/2002JD002670).

Reynolds, R.W., and T.M. Smith, 1994: Improved global sea surface temperature analyses using optimum interpolation. J. Climate, 7, 929-948.

Reynolds, R.W., N.A. Rayner, T.M. Smith, D.C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609-1625.

Reynolds, R.W., H.-M. Zhang, T.M. Smith, C.L. Gentemann, and F. Wentz, 2005: Impacts of in situ and additional satellite data on the accuracy of a sea-surface temperature analysis for climate. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 857-864 (doi:10.1002/joc.1168).

Reynolds, R.W., T.M. Smith, C. Liu, D.B. Chelton, K.S. Casey, and M.G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 5473-5496.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2002: Bias corrections for historical sea surface temperatures based on marine air temperatures. J. Climate, 15, 73-87.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2003: Extended reconstruction of global sea surface temperatures based on COADS data (1854-1997). J. Climate, 16, 1495-1510.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2004: Improved extended reconstruction of SST (1854-1997). J. Climate, 17, 2466-2477.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2005: A global merged land-air-sea surface temperature reconstruction based on historical observations (1880-1997). J. Climate, 18, 2021-2036.

Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, and C.F. Ropelewski, 1994: Optimal averaging of seasonal sea surface temperatures and associated confidence intervals (1860-1989). J. Climate, 7, 949-964.

Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, R.E. Livezey, and D.C. Stokes, 1996: Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperatures using empirical orthogonal functions. J. Climate, 9, 1403-1420.

Smith, T.M., R.W. Reynolds, T.C. Peterson, and J. Lawrimore, 2008: Improvements to NOAA's historical merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis (1880-2006). J. Climate, 21, 2283-2296.

Thompson, D.W.J., J.J. Kennedy, J.M. Wallace, and P.D. Jones, 2008: A large discontinuity in the mid-twentieth century in observed global-mean surface temperature. Nature, 453, 646-649 (29 May 2008) (doi:10.1038/nature06982).

Thompson, D.W.J., J.M. Wallace, J.J. Kennedy, and P.D. Jones, 2010: An abrupt drop in Northern Hemisphere sea surface temperature around 1970. Nature, 467, 444-447 (doi:10.1038/nature09394).

Trenberth, K.R., J.R. Christy, and J.W. Hurrell, 1992: Monitoring global monthly mean surface temperatures. J. Climate, 5, 1405-1423.

Yasunaka, S. and K. Hanawa, 2011: Intercomparison of historical sea surface temperature datasets. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1056-1073 (doi:10.1002/joc.2104).


Humidity
Willett, K.M., P.D. Jones, N.P. Gillett, and P.W. Thorne, 2008: Recent changes in surface humidity: Development of the HadCRUH dataset. J. Climate, 21, 5364-5383 (doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2274.1).


Waves
Gulev, S.K., and L. Hasse, 1999: Changes of wind waves in the North Atlantic over the last 30 years. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 1091-1117.

Gulev, S.K., and V. Grigorieva, 2004: Last century changes in ocean wind wave height from global visual wave data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24302 (doi:10.1029/2004GL021040).

Gulev, S.K., and V. Grigorieva, 2006: Variability of the winter wind waves and swell in the North Atlantic and North Pacific as revealed by the voluntary observing ship data. J. Climate, 19, 5667-5685.

Gulev, S.K., V. Grigorieva, A. Sterl, and D. Woolf, 2003: Assessment of the reliability of wave observations from voluntary observing ships: Insights from the validation of a global wind wave climatology based on voluntary observing ship data. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C7), 3236 (doi:10.1029/2002JC001437).


Weather and Precipitation
Jenkins, M.A., W.C. Wong, K. Higuchi, and J.L. Knox, 1994: Precipitation at Ocean Weather Station "P". J. Climate, 7, 792-806.

Petty, G.W., 1995: Frequencies and characteristics of global oceanic precipitation from ship-board present weather reports. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 1593-1616.


Winds and Pressure
Allan, R., and T. Ansell, 2006: A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 1850-2004. J. Climate, 19, 5816-5842.

Ansell, T.J., P.D. Jones, R.J. Allan, D. Lister, D.E. Parker, M. Brunet, A. Moberg, J. Jacobeit, P. Brohan, N.A. Rayner, E. Aguilar, H. Alexandersson, M. Barriendos, T. Brandsma, N.J. Cox, P.M. Della-Marta, A. Drebs, D. Founda, F. Gerstengarbe, K. Hickey, T. Jónsson, J. Luterbacher, Ø. Nordli, H. Oesterle, M. Petrakis, A. Philipp, M.J. Rodwell, O. Saladie, J. Sigro, V. Slonosky, L. Srnec, V. Swail, A.M. García-Suárez, H. Tuomenvirta, X. Wang, H. Wanner, P. Werner, D. Wheeler, and E. Xoplaki, 2006: Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European–North Atlantic region for the period 1850–2003.  J. Climate, 19, 2717–2742.

Bedacht, E., S.K. Gulev, and A. Mackea, 2007: Intercomparison of global cloud cover fields over oceans from the VOS observations and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Int. J. Climatol., 27, 1707-1719 (doi:10.1002/joc.1490).

Bourassa, M.A., R. Romero, S.R. Smith, and J.J. O'Brien, 2005: A new FSU winds climatology. J. Climate, 18, 3686-3698 (doi:10.1175/JCLI3487.1).

Cardone, V.J., J.G. Greenwood, and M.A. Cane, 1990: On trends in historical marine wind data. J. Climate, 3, 113-127.

Chang, E.K.M, 2005: Effects of secular changes in frequency of observations and observational errors on monthly mean MSLP summary statistics derived from ICOADS. J. Climate, 18, 3623-3633.

Cherniawsky, J.Y., W.R. Crawford, 1997: Comparison between weather buoy and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set wind data for the west coast of Canada. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C8), 18377-18389.

Gallego, D., R. García-Herrera, P. Ribera, and P.D. Jones, 2005: Seasonal mean pressure reconstruction of the North Atlantic (1750-1850) based on early marine data. Climate of the Past, 1, 19-33.

Gilhousen, D. B., 1987: A field evaluation of NDBC moored buoy winds. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 4, 94-104.

Graham, A.E., 1982: Winds estimated by the Voluntary Observing Fleet compared with instrumental measurements at fixed positions. Meteor. Mag., 111, 312-327.

Gulev, S.K., 1999: Comparison of COADS Release 1a winds with instrumental measurements in the northwest Atlantic. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 133-145.

Hanawa, K., and T. Yasuda, 2000: Reconstruction of sea surface wind fields over the North Pacific using sea level pressure fields during the period of 1899-1995. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 731-751.

Isemer, H.-J., and L. Hasse, 1991: The scientific Beaufort equivalent scale: effects on wind statistics and climatological air-sea flux estimates in the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 4, 819-836.

Kaplan, A., Y. Kushnir and M. A. Cane, 2000: Reduced space optimal interpolation of historical marine sea level pressure: 1854-1992. J. Climate, 13, 2987-3002.

Kent, E.C., and P.K. Taylor, 1997: Choice of a Beaufort equivalent scale. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 228-242.

Kent, E.C., P.K. Taylor, and P.G. Challenor, 1998: A comparison of ship- and scatterometer-derived wind speed data in open ocean and coastal areas. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 19, 3361-3381.

Lindau, R., 2006: The elimination of spurious trends in marine wind data using pressure observations. Int. J. Climatol., 26, 797-817 (doi:10.1002/joc.1284).

Moat, B.I, M.J. Yelland, R.W. Pascal, and A.F. Molland, 2005: An overview of the airflow distortion at anemometer sites on ships. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 997-1006 (doi:10.1002/joc.1177).

Peterson, E.W., and L. Hasse, 1987: Did the Beaufort Scale or the wind climate change? J. Phys. Oceanog., 17, 1071-1074.

Quayle, R.G., 1980: Climatic comparisons of estimated and measured winds from ships. J. Appl. Meteor., 19, 142-156.

Ramage, C.S., 1987: Secular changes in reported surface wind speeds over the ocean. J. Climate Appl. Meteor., 26, 525-528.

Selvam, A.M., J.S. Pethkar, M.K. Kulkarni, and R. Vijayakumar, 1996: Signatures of a universal spectrum for atmospheric interannual variability in COADS surface pressure time series. Int. J. Climatol., 16, 393-403.

Smith, T.M., and R.W. Reynolds, 2004: Reconstruction of monthly mean oceanic sea level pressure based on COADS and station data (1854-1997). J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21, 1272-1282.

Thomas, B.R. and V.R. Swail, 2011: Buoy wind inhomogeneities related to averaging method and anemometer type: application to long time series. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1040-1055 (doi:10.1002/joc.2339).

Thomas B.R., E.C. Kent, and V.R. Swail, 2005: Methods to homogenize wind speeds from ships and buoys. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 979-995 (doi:10.1002/joc.1176).

Thomas B.R., E.C. Kent, V.R. Swail, and D.I. Berry, 2008: Trends in ship wind speeds adjusted for observation method and height. Int. J. Climatol., 28, 747-763 (doi:10.1002/joc.1570).

Tokinaga, H., S.-P. Xie, 2011: Wave- and Anemometer-Based Sea Surface Wind (WASWind) for Climate Change Analysis. J. Climate, 24, 267-285 (doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3789.1).

Wallbrink, H., F. Koek, G.P. Können, and T. Brandsma, 2003: Sea-level pressure observations from Dutch ships 1854-1938 incorporated in COADS Release 1c climatology. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 471-475.

Ward, M.N., and B.J. Hoskins, 1996: Near-surface wind over the global ocean 1949-88. J. Climate, 9, 1877-1895.

Wheeler, D., and C. Wilkinson, 2004: From calm to storm: the origins of the Beaufort wind scale. Mariner's Mirror, 90, 187-201.

Winterfeldt, J., B. Geyer, and R. Weisse, 2011: Using QuikSCAT in the added value assessment of dynamically downscaled wind speed. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1028-1039 (doi:10.1002/joc.2105).

WMO (World Meterological Organization), 1970: The Beaufort scale of wind force--technical and operational aspects. Reports on Marine Science Affairs No. 3, WMO, Geneva, 22 pp.

Wright, P.B., 1988: On the reality of climatic changes in wind over the Pacific. J. Climatol., 8, 521-527.


Oceanographic
Palmer, M.D. and P. Brohan, 2011: Estimating sampling uncertainty in fixed-depth and fixed-isotherm estimates of ocean warming. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 980-986 (doi:10.1002/joc.2224).


Data Quality
Cadet, D.L., and Y. Pafadnam, 1988: Marine data sets and the shift of shipping routes. J. Geophys. Res., 93, 15639-15641.

Kent, E.C., and D.I. Berry, 2005: Quantifying random measurement errors in Voluntary Observing Ships' meteorological observations. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-II Special Issue), 25, 843-856 (doi:10.1002/joc.1167).

Kent, E.C., and P.K. Taylor, 1996: Accuracy of humidity measurements on ships: consideration of solar radiation effects. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 13, 1317-1321.

Kent, E.C., P.K. Taylor, B.S. Truscott, and J.S. Hopkins, 1993: The accuracy of voluntary observing ships' meteorological observations-results of the VSOP-NA. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 10, 591-608.

Kent, E.C., P.G. Challenor, and P.K. Taylor, 1999: A statistical determination of the random observational errors present in voluntary observing ships meteorological reports. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 905-914.

Kent, E.C., D.I. Berry, S.D. Woodruff, and P.K. Taylor, 2006: Voluntary Observing Ships: A vital observing system in decline. CLIVAR Exchanges, No. 38 (Vol. 11, No. 3, July 2006), 15 & 20-21.

Kent, E.C., S.D. Woodruff and D.I. Berry, 2007: WMO Publication No. 47 metadata and an assessment of observation heights in ICOADS. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 24, 214-234 (doi:10.1175/JTECH1949.1).

Morrissey, M.L., 1990: An evaluation of ship data in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Climate, 3, 99-112.

Quayle, R.G., 1984: Comparisons between ship and buoy climatologies. Mar. Wea. Log, 28, 137-140.

Roll, H.U., 1965: Physics of the Marine Atmosphere. Academic Press, New York, NY, 426 pp.

Wilkerson, J.C., and M.D. Earle, 1990: A study of differences between environmental reports by ships in the Voluntary Observing Program and measurements from NOAA buoys. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 3373-3385.

Wolter, K., 1997: Trimming problems and remedies in COADS. J. Climate, 10, 1980-1997.

Wright, P.B., 1986: Problems in the use of ship observations for the study of interdecadal climate changes. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 1028-1034.


Reanalyses
Compo, G.P., J.S. Whitaker, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2006: Feasibility of a 100-year reanalysis using only surface pressure data. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87, 175-190.

Compo, G.P., et al., 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 (Jan. 2011 Part A) (doi:10.1002/qj.776).

Kalnay, E., et al., 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-470 (doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2).

Uppala, S.M., et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012 (doi:10.1256/qj.04.176).


General
Diaz, H.F., C.S. Ramage, S.D. Woodruff, and T.S. Parker, 1987: Climatic Summaries of Ocean Weather Stations. NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Division, Boulder, CO, 363 pp. (pdf; 13.2MB)

Molinari, R.L., 1999: Lessons learned from operating global ocean observing networks. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 1413-1419.

Rossby, T., G. Siedler, and W. Zenk, 1995: The voluntary observing ship and future ocean monitoring. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 76, 5-11.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 1994: Guide to the Applications of Marine Climatology. WMO-No.781, Geneva.


Historical
Agnew, D.C., 2004: Robert Fitzroy and the myth of the 'Marsden Square': Transatlantic rivalries in early marine meteorology. Notes Rec. R. Soc. Lond., 58(1), 21-46.

Allan, R., P. Brohan, G.P. Compo, R. Stone, J. Luterbacher, and S. Brönnimann, 2011: The International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) Initiative. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 1421-1425 (doi:10.1175/2011BAMS3218.1).

AWS (Air Weather Service), 1960: History of the International Code. Reference Manual TDF 13. HQ, Air Weather Service (1 September 1960), pp. 0.6-0.10. (pdf; 2.7MB)

Braun, D.S., 2000: Scientific vision, a passion for observation, and the impetus for change: Germany loans Maury logs to the National Climatic Data Center. Earth System Monitor, 11(1), 4-7. (pdf; 14.3MB)

Brázdil, R., P. Dobrovolný, J. Luterbacher, A. Moberg, C. Pfister, D. Wheeler, and E. Zorita, 2010: European climate of the past 500 years: new challenges for historical climatology. Climatic Change, 101, 7-40 (doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9783-z).

Brohan, P., R. Allan, J.E. Freeman, A.M. Waple, D. Wheeler, C. Wilkinson, and S. Woodruff, 2009: Marine observations of old weather. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, 219-230

Brohan, P., C. Ward, G. Willetts, C. Wilkinson, R. Allan, and D. Wheeler, 2010: Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century. Clim. Past, 6, 315-324 (doi:10.5194/cp-6-315-2010).

Brohan, P., R. Allan, E. Freeman, D. Wheeler, C. Wilkinson, and F. Williamson, 2012: Constraining the temperature history of the past millennium using early instrumental observations, Clim. Past Discuss., 8, 1653-1685 (doi:10.5194/cpd-8-1653-2012).

Cerveny, R.S., 2005: Charles Darwin's meterological observations above the HMS Beagle. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 86, 1295-1301.

Chenoweth, M., 1996: Ships' logbooks and "The Year Without a Summer". Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 2077-2094.

CLIWOC-team, 2003: Multilingual Meteorological Dictionary an English-Spanish-Dutch-French dictionary of wind force terms used by mariners from 1750 to 1850. HISKLIM 5 (KNMI publ. 205) KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 49 pp.

Elms, J.D., R.G. Quayle, and S.D. Woodruff, 1992: Where have all the data gone? Mar. Wea. Log, 36, No. 2, 9-13.

García-Herrera, R., F.R. Durán, D. Wheeler, E.H. Martín, M.R. Prieto, and L. Gimeno, 2005: The use of Spanish and British documentary sources in the investigation of Atlantic hurricane incidence, in R.J. Murnane and K.-B. Liu (Eds.) Hurricanes and Typhoons: Past, Present and Future. Columbia University Press, New York, 149-176.

García-Herrera, R., P. Jones, D. Wheeler, G. Können, and M.R. Prieto (Guest Eds.), 2005: CLIWOC: Climatology of the World's Oceans, 1750-1850 (Special Issue). Clim. Change, 73, 1-194. [Individual papers are listed in the following separate section.]

Gergis, J., P. Brohan, and R. Allan, 2010: The weather of the First Fleet voyage to Botany Bay, 1787-1788. Weather, 65, 315-319.

Greenough, M.L.,1998: Report on Conversion of NCDC Microfilms to Electronic Files with FOSDIC. Greenough Data Associates, Rockville, MD. (pdf; 8MB)

Levitus S., 2012: The UNESCO-IOC-IODE "Global Oceanographic Data Archeology and Rescue" (GODAR) Project and "World Ocean Database" Project. Data Science Journal, 11, 46-71 (doi:10.2481/dsj.012-014).

Lewis, J.M., 1996: Winds over the World Sea: Maury and Köppen. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 935-952.

Manabe, T., 1999: The digitized Kobe Collection, phase I: historical surface marine meteorological observations in the archive of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 2703-2715.

Maritime Conference, 1875: Report of the Proceedings of the Conference on Maritime Meteorology held in London, 1874, Protocols and Appendices. Published by Authority of the Meteorological Committee, Official No. 23, HM Stationery Office, London, 61 pp. (pdf; 9.3MB)

Maury, M.F., 1851: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 3rd Ed., C. Alexander, Printer, Washington, 315 pp. + plates. [Note: Abstract log form on pp. 314-315.] (pdf; 25MB)

Maury, M.F., 1854: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 6th Ed., E.C. and J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 772 pp. + plates. [Note: A report from the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 54-60; "Minutes of the Sittings" on pp. 60-88; and "Explanatory notes for keeping the abstract log," and example log forms for men-of-war and merchantmen, on pp. 88-96.] (pdf; 101MB)

Maury, M.F., 1855: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 7th Ed., E.C. and J. Biddle, Philadelphia, 869 pp. + plates. [Note: Material related to the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 181-212.] (pdf; 99MB)

Maury, M.F., 1858: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 8th Ed., Vol. 1, W.A. Harris, printer, Washington, 383 pp. + plates. [Note: Material related to the 1853 Brussels Conference on pp. 330-383.] (pdf; 60MB)

Maury, M.F., 1859: Explanations and Sailing Directions to Accompany the Wind and Current Charts, 8th Ed., Vol. 2, W.A. Harris, printer, Washington, 874 pp. + plates. [Note: Conditions upon which the Wind and Current Charts are furnished to navigators on pp. 870-874.] (pdf; 67MB)

Mierzejewska, A.W., Z. Wu, R.E. Newell, and T. Miyashita, 1997: Japanese whaling ships' sea surface temperature 1946-84. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 443-447.

NARA (National Archives and Records Administration), 1986: The Maury Abstract Logs, 1796-1861. Pamphlet describing microfilm publication M1160, NARA, Washington, 8 pp. (pdf; 1MB)

NCDC (National Climatic Data Center), 1968: TDF-11 Reference Manual. NCDC, Asheville, NC, 138 pp. (pdf; 2.5MB)

Neumayer, G., 1879: Conduct of marine meteorology in Germany (and the agreements reached between the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in Utrecht and the German Marine Observatory regarding the publication of the results of maritime meteorology). Delivered to the Second International Meteorological Congress in Rome. Hamburg, 26 pp + images [UK Met Office Translation No.1631]. (pdf; 2MB)

Prieto, M.R., R. García-Herrera, E. Hernández Martin, 2004: Early records of icebergs in the South Atlantic Ocean from Spanish documentary sources. Climatic Change, 66, 29-48 (doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000043142.94461.d1).

Sherman, S.C., J.M. Downey, V.M. Adams, and H. Pasternack, 1986: Whaling Logbooks and Journals, 1613-1927: An Inventory of Manuscript Records in Public Collections. Garland Publishing, New York, 469 pp.

UK Meteorological Office, 1948: International Meteorological Code Adopted by the International Meteorological Organization, Washington, 1947. M.O. 509, H.M. Stationary Office, London, 39 pp, (pdf; 6.1MB)

US Air Weather Service, 1948: Machine Methods of Weather Statistics (June 1948). Prepared by the US Air Force Data Control Unit, an Activity of the Air Weather Service, New Orleans, LA, 59 pp. + illustrations. [Note: Limited information about marine data.] (pdf; 5MB)

US Air Weather Service et al., 1949: Machine Methods of Weather Statistics, 4th Ed. (December 1949). Prepared cooperatively by the Machine Tabulating Units of the US Air Force/Air Weather Service, US Dept. of Commerce/Weather Bureau, and US Navy/Aerology Section, New Orleans, LA, 28 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data, e.g., early card decks.] (pdf; 3MB)

US Office of Naval Operations, 1953: Climatology by Machine Methods for Naval Operations, Plans, and Research (March 1953). Prepared for the Office of Chief of Naval Operations, Aerology Branch, Washington, DC, 37 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data.] (pdf; 5MB)

US Weather Bureau, 1960: Climatology at Work: Measurements, Methods and Machines (October 1960). G.L. Barger, Ed.; inside cover note dated 31 January 1974 by H.L. Crutcher. Produced at National Weather Records Center, US Weather Bureau, Asheville, NC (with support of US Navy and US Air Force/Air Weather Service), 109 pp. [Note: Limited information about marine data; photographs of FOSDIC machines on p. 74.] (pdf; 47MB)

US Weather Bureau-Japan Meteorological Agency, 1960: Guide Book of the Japanese Marine Surface Data, US Weather Bureau and Japan Meteorological Agency, 527 pp. (pdf; 15MB)

US Weather Bureau-Japan Meteorological Agency, 1961: Guide Book of the Japanese Marine Surface Data, US Weather Bureau and Japan Meteorological Agency, 81 pp. (pdf; 2MB)

Verploegh, G., 1966: Report of the Consultant on the Historical Sea-Surface Temperature Data Project, 49 pp. plus Annexes. [Note: The Consultant was to, but the report appears not to have been archived by, WMO. Copies were obtained courtesy of the UK Met Office and KNMI.] (pdf; 5MB)

Wheeler, D.A., 1988: Sailing ships logs' weather records: a test case. J. Meteorology (UK), 13,122-125.

Wheeler, D., 1995: The weather vocabulary of an eighteenth century mariner: the log books of Nicholas Pocock. Weather, 50, 298-304 [reprinted in 1997 in The Marine Observer, 67, 22-28].

Wheeler, D., 2001: The weather of the European Atlantic Seaboard during October 1805: an exercise in historical climatology: Climatic Change, 48, 361-385.

Wheeler, D., 2004: Understanding seventeenth century ships' logbooks: an exercise in historical climatology. Journal for Maritime Research, March 2004 (doi:10.1080/21533369.2004.9668335).

Wheeler, D., and C. Wilkinson, 2004: From calm to storm: the origins of the Beaufort wind scale. Mariner's Mirror, 90, 187-201.

Wheeler, D., and J. Suarez-Dominguez, 2006: Climatic reconstructions for the northeast Atlantic region AD 1685-1700: a new source of evidence from naval logbooks. The Holocene, 16, 39-49.

Wheeler, D., and R. García-Herrera, 2008: Ships' Logbooks in Climatological Research: Reflections and Prospects. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1146, 1-15 (2008) (doi:10.1196/annals.1446.006).

Wheeler, D., R. García-Herrera, C. W. Wilkinson, and C. Ward, 2010: Atmospheric circulation and storminess derived from Royal Navy logbooks: 1685 to 1750. Climatic Change, 101, 257-280 (doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9732-x).

Wilkinson C., C. Ward, and F. Williamson, 2008: Report on the Royal Navy Remark Books Held at the Hydrographic Office: Taunton UK. (Unpublished report) (pdf; 337KB)

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), 2004: An International Seminar to Celebrate the Brussels Maritime Conference of 1853--An Historical Perspective of Operational Marine Meteorology and Oceanography. WMO/TD-No. 1226 (JCOMM Technical Report No. 27)--on CD-ROM.

WMO, 1985: User's Guide to the Data and Summaries of the Historical Sea Surface Temperature Data Project. Marine Meteorology and Related Oceanographic Activities Report No. 13, WMO/TD-No. 36, Geneva. (pdf; 1.7MB)

Woodruff, S., J. Elms, R. Reynolds, R. Garcia, F. Guo, S. Worley, and T. Yoshida, 2004: Rescuing marine data. World Climate News, No. 25 (June 2004), WMO, Geneva, 10.


CLIWOC Climatic Change Special Issue

García-Herrera, R., G.P. Können, D.A. Wheeler, M.R. Prieto, P.D. Jones, and F.B. Koek, 2005: CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750-1854. Climatic Change, 73, 1-12 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6952-6).

García-Herrera, R., C. Wilkinson, F.B. Koek, M.R. Prieto, N. Calvo, and E. Hernández, 2005: Description and general background to ships' logbooks as a source of climatic data. Climatic Change, 73, 13-36 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6954-4).

Jones, P.D., and M. Salmon, 2005: Preliminary reconstructions of the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation Index from measures of wind strength and direction taken during the CLIWOC period. Climatic Change, 73, 131-154 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6948-2).

Koek, F.B., and G.P. Können, 2005: Determination of wind force and present weather terms: The Dutch case. Climatic Change, 73, 79-95 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6945-5).

Können, G.P., and F.B. Koek, 2005: Description of the CLIWOC database. Climatic Change, 73, 117-130 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6946-4).

Prieto, M. R., D. Gallego, R. García-Herrera, N. Calvo, 2005: Deriving wind force terms from nautical reports through content analysis. The Spanish and French cases. Climatic Change, 73, 37-55 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6956-2).

Wheeler, D., 2005: An examination of the accuracy and consistency of ships' logbook weather observations and records. Climatic Change, 73, 97-116 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6950-8).

Wheeler, D., and C. Wilkinson, 2005: The determination of logbook wind force and weather terms: The English case. Climatic Change, 73, 57-77 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6949-1).

Wilkinson, C., 2005: The non-climatic research potential of ships' logbooks and journals. Climatic Change, 73, 155-167 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-6947-3).

Woodruff, S.D., H.F. Diaz, S.J. Worley, R.W. Reynolds, and S.J. Lubker, 2005: Early ship observational data and ICOADS. Climatic Change, 73, 169-194 (doi:10.1007/s10584-005-3456-3).


HISKLIM (HIStorical CLIMate) Marine Publications

García-Herrera, R., D. Wheeler, G.P. Können, F.B. Koek and M.R. Prieto, 2003: CLIWOC multilingual meteorological dictionary, An English-Spanish-Dutch-French dictionary of wind force terms used by mariners from 1750-1850. HISKLIM 5 (KNMI-publication 205) 49pp., ISBN 90-369-2243-7, KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.7MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2005: HISKLIM-COADS, final report. HISKLIM 8 (KNMI-publication 210), ISBN 90-369-2269-0. KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.5MB)

Wallbrink H., F.B. Koek and T. Brandsma, 2009: The US Maury Collection Metadata 1796-1861. HISKLIM 11 (KNMI-publication 225), KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 1.12 MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2009: Historical Maritime Wind Scales until 1947. HISKLIM 12, 20pp., KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.6MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2009: Historical Wind Speed Equivalents Of The Beaufort Scale, 1850-1950. HISKLIM 13, 29pp., KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 0.5MB)

Wallbrink H. and F.B. Koek, 2010: Data Acquisition And Keypunching Codes For Marine Meteorological Observations At The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, 1854-1968. HISKLIM 14, KNMI Publication No. 226, 59pp, KNMI, De Bilt. (pdf; 2.9MB)

Note: The above HISKLIM publications were obtained from this webpage at KNMI, which also contains HISKLIM publications in Dutch, and other marine publications.


Miscellaneous
Corbett, J.J., and H.W. Koehler, 2003: Updated emissions from ocean shipping. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D20), 4650 (doi:10.1029/2003JD003751).

Corbett, J.J., P.S. Fischbeck, and S.N. Pandis, 1999: Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships. J. Geophys. Res., 104(D3), 3457-3470.

Dunbar, R.B., G.M. Wellington, M.W. Colgan, and P.W. Glynn, 1994: Eastern Pacific sea surface temperature since 1600 A.D.: The [delta]18O record of climate variability in Galápagos corals. Paleoceanography, 9(2), 291-315.

Endresen, Ø., E. Sørgård, J.K. Sundet, S.B. Dalsøren, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.F. Berglen, and G. Gravir, 2003: Emission from international sea transportation and environmental impact. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), 4560 (doi:10.1029/2002JD002898).

Restrepo, J.D., B. Kjerfve, I.D. Correa, and J. González, 2002: Morphodynamics of a high discharge tropical delta, San Juan River, Pacific coast of Columbia. Marine Geology, 192, 355-381.

Schmelzer, N. and J. Holfort, 2011: Ice winter severity in the western Baltic Sea in the period of 1301-1500: comparison with other relevant data. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1094-1098 (doi:10.1002/joc.2337).

Walczowski, W. and J. Piechura, 2011: Influence of the West Spitsbergen Current on the local climate. Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1088-1093 (doi:10.1002/joc.2338).

Wolter, K. and M.S. Timlin, 2011: El Niño/Southern Oscillation behaviour since 1871 as diagnosed in an extended multivariate ENSO index (MEI.ext). Int. J. Climatol. (CLIMAR-III Special Issue), 31, 1074-1087 (doi:10.1002/joc.2336).


Data and Documentation | Chronology and News | Project Status | Publications | Related Data and Resources | Contact Points


NOAA/ESRL/PSD hosts the icoads website privacy disclaimer
Document maintained by icoads.webmaster@noaa.gov
Updated: Nov 8, 2011 10:31:28 MST
http://icoads.noaa.gov/selected.html